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新航道北京学校 > 英语怎么说 > 英语:美国人口老龄化意味着劳动力缩减

英语:美国人口老龄化意味着劳动力缩减

最近更新时间:2020-07-27 09:54:03来源:新航道北京学校

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Aging Americans Means Shrinking Workforce

美国人口老龄化意味着劳动力缩减

Americans are getting older, and family size is getting smaller. That means the United States will have less working adults in the future.

美国人口正在向老龄化发展。家庭规模正在变小。那就意味着在未来美国可工作的成年人人数变得更少。

By 2030, twenty percent of U.S. residents will be 66 years of age or older. That compares to 13 percent in 2010, and just under 10 percent in 1970.

到2030年,美国20%居民的年龄将达到66岁或者更高。对比于2010年其比例仅占13%,在1970年这个比例刚好在10%以下。

The aging population could be a concern if Americans expect to have an expanding population, says David Kelly. He is with the investment company J.P. Morgan Asset Management.

大卫·凯利表示如果美国人期望人口不断增长那么人口老龄化可能成为一个担忧。他在投资公司摩根大通资产管理公司工作。

“If you're investing in things like the housing industry or the auto industry and you need an ever-growing population, then you have to adjust to a world in which the U.S. population is growing more slowly,” he said.

“如果你正在投资房地产或者汽车这样的行业,你将需要不断增长的人口,然后你必须适应美国人口增长更加缓慢这样的世界”他说。

Different studies show that an aging population cuts into economic growth, and older workers who stay on the job are often less productive than younger ones.

不同的研究表明,人口老龄化会削弱经济增长,而留在工作岗位上的老年工人往往比年轻工人生产力更低。

But as Americans are aging, last year the birth rate nationwide dropped to its lowest level in 32 years. Less than 3.8 million babies were born in 2018, which is two percent less than the year before. Taken as a whole, the population grew only six-tenths of one percent in 2018, compared to 1.2 percent growth in the 1990s.

但是随着美国人口老龄化,去年全国出生率降到了32年来最低水平。2018年只有不到380万的婴儿出生,比前一年降低了2%。整体而言,2018年人口仅增长了0.6%。相比之下20世纪90年代增长率为1.2%。

Kelly said the low birth rate is not necessarily bad news. Looking beyond economics, a growing world population could do more damage to Earth’s environment. He said that U.S. policy makers should plan for dealing with a smaller workforce.

凯利表示低出生率并不一定是坏消息。不考虑经济情况,世界人口不断增长可能对地球环境造成更大的损害。他说美国政策制定者应该制定计划解决劳动力的缩减。

“We really should adapt to a world of slow population growth because it's clearly happening to us,” he said.

“我们真的应该适应一个人口增长缓慢的世界,因为这显然正在发生在我们身上,”他说。

What will replace human workers? Like others, Kelly expects the lack of workers to fuel the growth of robotics and artificial intelligence. He said that Americans need to prepare for the U.S. economic growth to slow a little in the future.

什么将取代人类工作者?像其他人一样,凯利期望工作人员的缺乏会刺激机器人和人工智能的增长。他说美国人需要对未来经济增长略微放缓做准备。

Another way to fix the shrinking workforce is to add more legal immigrants. Immigrants usually arrive in the United States when they are of working age.

治理劳动力缩减的另外一个方法是增加更多的合法移民。移民通常在他们的工作年龄到达美国。

But this is not an easy solution, because the U.S. Congress and President Donald Trump continue to disagree over how to deal with immigration issues.

但是这并不是一个简单的解决方法,因为美国国会和唐纳德·特朗普总统对解决移民问题仍持不同意见。

The U.S. economy can easily make changes to deal with the slower population growth, Kelly said. But he worries that politics could get in the way of solutions.

凯利说,美国经济可以很容易地做出改变,以应对人口增长放缓的问题。但他担心政治可能会阻碍解决方案的实施。

“The real question is a political question,” he notes, “because it seems even as our population matures in years, it seems that our political system gets less mature in terms of thought process.”

“真正的问题是政治问题,”他指出,“因为我们的人口似乎在几年后就成熟了,而我们的政治制度在思维过程上似乎就不那么成熟了。

I’m Anne Ball.

安妮·鲍尔为您报道。

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